Archaeology and Soils, Winnipeg, 1968
– William M. Hurley
Concentional archaeological field techniques are presently being supplemented by environmental studies designed to aid the archaeologist in his study of man's interaction with his total environment. One auxillary line or research, soils, is discussed in light of its applicability to site interpretations with specific emphasis given to the rate of soil horizonation. Control of the temporal ranges involved in soil horizonation will allow the archaeologist to rank and order site phenomenon while aiding the pedologists in their efforts to control time as a soil forming factor.
Blackduck in the West: the Distribution and Stylistic Changes of Blackduck Ware on the Prairies, Winnipeg, 1968
– Dennis C. Joyes
The western distribution of Blackduck ware can be considered to end in extreme southwestern Manitoba. The westernmost true Blackduck site is the Stott Mound and Village, near Brandon, Manitoba, where two core types, Manitoba Horizontal and Blackduck Brushed, were found along with two types, Stott Triangular and Stott Noded, which seems to be restricted to the west. At the Avery site at Rock Lake, located south of Brandon near the U.S. Border, Blackduck ware was a minor type represented by Manitoba Horizontal and a closely related type, Stott Triangular. Blackduck ware also occurred at the Calf Mountain site, at the Shewfelt site and at the Wall site, east of the Avery site. Probably the westernmost occurrences of classic Blackduck types are at the Calf Mountain site and at Delta, near the south end of Lake Manitoba, and at the Stott Mound and Village. West of these locations several changes begin to take place: (1) the cord-wrapped stick impressions become more widely spaced; (2) thickened rims become less common; and (3) new modes of decoration begin to appear, i.e., triangular elements and interior punctations. By the time one reaches Saskatchewan a distinct type appears which may be descended from Blackduck ware. This has a thickened rim bearing cord-wrapped stick impressions but with a check-stamped surface finish. This surface finish may indicate that a western descendant of Blackduck ware moved out onto the true plains and merged with influences from the south.
Archaeological Sites in the Tsimshian and Haida Areas of British Columbia., Winnipeg, 1968
– George F. MacDonald
In the summer of 1966 a project aimed at delineating the cultural sequence on the coast of British Columbia, in the area presently inhabited by the Haida and Tsimshian tribes, was begun by the National Museum of Canada. During the 1966 season attention was focused on the Skeena River, Prince Rupert Harbour area and the northern coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands. More than 100 large sites were recorded, and artifact samples were recovered from one deeply stratified fishing station near Hazelton on the Skeena and from a shell midden in the Prince Rupert Harbour. In the 1968 season, survey was extended to the Nass River and the central portion of the Queen Charlotte Islands around Skidegate Inlet. Two shell middens, former winter villages (GbTo-18 and 23) in the Prince Rupert area were partially excavated. A sample of over 3,000 artifacts is now being analyzed. Carbon dates from the coastal middens range over 3,000 years. A skeletal sample from the Haida and Niskae tribes was recovered from burial caves for comparison with the archaeological sample of approximately 100 individuals excavated from the middens. Large samples of faunal remains from the Queen Charlotte Island and coastal middens are also undergoing analysis, and a comparative collection, stressing sea mammals, is being assembled.
Pointe-Aux-Buissons Site, Winnipeg, 1968
– G. Mackenzie
Pointe-aux-Buissons Site excavated by the Quebec Prehistoric Archaeology Society, (La societe d'archéologie préhistorique du Québec SAPQ). The Quebec Prehistoric Archaeology Society was founded in October, 1966 although it has been in existence de facto and operating since May of the preceding year. The SAPQ, as it is known by its French initials, is represented at this conference by MM Laurent Girouard, Serges-Andre Crete, and M Gerard MacKenzie. The SAPQ in 1965 began a five-year projected excavation of the Pointe-aux-Bois site, 25 miles upstream from Montreal. To date, after three summers' work, five stratified camp sites have been located in the area. Of these five, only three have been excavated so far, but plans have been made to complete the investigation of the other two. The time range of these camp sites, from artifactual materials, appears to range from late Archaic to late Woodlands. Carbon-14 evaluations are still being awaited, and it is hoped that these will confirm the proposed sequence. These sites may be arranged serially from Laurel pottery traits' occurrance in association with Archaic (lithic) industry tools. Hopewellian pottery features have been detected, mingled with Laurel and Woodlands incised and cord-wrapped stick-impressed surfaces. The uppermost levels of site 2, dating from Iroquois times, have yielded the remains of the only dwelling found. Other signs of life in the camp were a midden and several exposed hearths. Metal objects of European origin serve to place the latest find at the beginning of the historic period. General stratification and amounts of pottery fragments indicate that the sites were occupied for relatively long periods of time. It is hoped that further excavation will give insight into the activities of Iroquois groups in the St. Lawrence Valley at the beginning of the historic period.
Fort Riviére Tremblante (N.W.C., 1791-98), Winnipeg, 1968
– Hugh T. Mackie
From July 2nd to September 15, 1967, a five-man crew from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon carried out excavations at the North West Company's Fort Riviére Tremblante (1791-98). The Fort was the first N.W. Company post on the Upper Red (Assiniboine) River and the headquarters for the Upper Red River Department. Excavation was directed by Hugh T. MacKie of the University with the support of Dr. Z. Pohorecky, Head, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology and Dr. W.J. Mayer-Oakes, Head, Department of Anthropology, University of Manitoba. Major financial support was provided by the Historic Sites Advisory Board of Manitoba with additional financing from the Historic Sites Branch, Department of Natural Resources, Saskatchewan. The 1967 field research indicates the remains for at least two major periods of fort construction. The first is associated with a large parallelogram shaped stockade of 245' X 148' with the second construction having a stockade of 260' X 165' enclosing the first. The charred remains of buildings associated with each of the construction periods were excavated. Testing has uncovered a number of other features tentatively described as cellars, trenches and fireplaces have been plotted and await further excavation. Preservation of structural remains was good. Artifacts recovered include a great variety of beads, gun flints, silver and copper ornaments and other typical fur-trade items.
Information South of the Laurel Area Pertinent to an Understanding of Laurel, Winnipeg, 1968
– Ronald J. Mason
Recent assessments of the age and derivation of the Laurel Culture are examined and criticized. Typological ceramic affinities are traced to other 'Middle Woodland' cultural groupings in eastern Canada and in northeastern United States, particularly Saugeen, Point Peninsula, North Bay, and Havana-Hopewell. It is argued that Laurel is not as old as some have claimed and that its true age, lacking a consistent and reliably large sample of radiocarbon assays for Laurel, can be better approximated by viewing it in the wider context of eastern North American prehistory. Possible sources of certain Laurel pottery attributes are suggested.
Changing Roles of Archaeological Societies: A Case History from Saskatchewan, Winnipeg, 1968
– T. S. Phenix
In Saskatchewan the amateur Archaeological Societies are no longer groups of people who attend meetings only to hear a speaker or to find out where the other collector found relics. They are providing leadership to non-members, encouraging them to record their finds and to assist in scientifically organized and published projects. They are assisting at most of the professional excavations in Saskatchewan. They are attempting to record old collections. The amateur's role of publishing must be expanded. They are beginning to serve on advisory boards to Governments to ensure legal and financial support of our prehistory. They are providing speakers and displays for children and for the public to encourage an archaeological understanding of artifacts and to discourage collection for financial gain.
Archaeology and the Law in Canada Today, Winnipeg, 1968
– Zenon Pohorecky
The history of legislation regarding antiquities in Canada today must be reviewed and evaluated comparatively, province by province, because no constitutional provision was ever made in the B.N.A. Act of 1867 for the legal protection of antiquities at a time when antiquities were gaining importance in Europe among nations that singled out the dimension of antiquity for cultivating a pride in nationhood. Laws about Canada's antiquities have had to be based on shadowy frames of reference derived from arbitrary administrative interpretations of the meaning of such conveniently vague terms as 'natural resources' - so such laws have a ghostly aura of unreality, where antiquities have no legal status apart from the elastic category into which they may have been placed. The question of property rights somehow looms like an iceberg in any consideration of laws about antiquities in Canada. Thus antiquities have fallen under the jurisdiction of either provincial or federal governments, depending upon the ownership of the public land upon which such antiquities were discovered, and sometimes depending upon the extent to which provincial governments have cared to consult with private landowners upon whose lands antiquities were discovered. Since the laws pertain to antiquities (public property), antiquities on privately-owned land cannot be protected by law without the consent of the landowner. However, even on public land, antiquities can be destroyed, mainly by a failure to provide adequate financial provisions for the rescue of archaeological sites being threatened by such public works projects as highway construction, except by prolonged negotiations following specific petitions. The success of such petitions and negotiations is not safe-guarded by law anywhere. It is suggested that some provision for antiquities be embodied in currently discussed revisions of the constitution of Canada, in accordance with principles consistent with those already implicit in other parts of the B.N.A. Act. It is argued that antiquities deserve a special status in Canada quite apart from some expedient ad hoc marriage-by-default to some interpretations of such terms as 'natural resources' - in line with the recent liberalization of divorce laws?
Archaeologioal Investigations in Waterton Lakes National Park 1967, Winnipeg, 1968
– Brian Reeves
Under contract with the National and Historic Parks Branch, the University of Calgary carried out salvage excavations in the Pass Creek Valley of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Pass Creek Valley forms the eastern approach to the South Kootenai Pass - the major aboriginal trans-continental passes in the Southern Alberta Rockies. This factor, combined with the extension of the prairie biome inside the mountain valley, resulted in a high density of aboriginal sites in the valley. Of 41 habitation, kill and ceremonial sites located in the valley, 18 sites were tested, of which six were sampled more extensively. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates a 8,000 year time span of occupation in the valley with the earliest archaeological component showing certain relationships to the Old Cordilleran tradition.
Laurel and Blackduck Influences in Northern Wisconsin, Winnipeg, 1968
– Robert J. Salzer
Archaeological investigations in the lacustrine district in extreme north-central Wisconsin for the past three summers have revealed distinctive Middle Woodland and Late Woodland assemblages which, for the most part, were previously unknown and unanticipated. These materials include considerable numbers of exotic artifacts and artifact styles which reflect prehistoric contacts and influences from southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario, northeastern Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota, southeastern Manitoba, and adjacent portions of northern Ontario. The Laurel and Blackduck-related styles reported here represent the southern limits of these influences in Wisconsin and, as such, help to define the maximum extent of Laurel and Blackduck with regard to their more southern contemporaries.
National Museum Research in the Maritime Provinces, Winnipeg, 1968
– David Sanger
In the 1967 field season survey and excavation was conducted in two areas of New Brunswick. Additional survey was carried out in southern Newfoundland. Laboratory research includes continuing analysis of microblades and cores from the Northwest Plateau and from Alberta.
Field Work Progress of the Manitoba Archaeological Society, Winnipeg, 1968
– Allan A. Simpson
The Harris Sites (C3-C0-1, 2 and 3): These sites were tested in the fall of 1966 when it was learned that they were to be destroyed in 1967 by gravel operations and excavations were continued early in 1967 aided by a salvage grant from the National Museum of Canada. The original excavation of Harris No. 1 was extended with additional material being recovered, however, the material is insufficient for a reasonable reconstruction of the four levels identified. In Harris No. 2 four ceramic occupations in the middle terrace suggests Selkirk, Manitoba and Laurel. Bulldozers unearthed considerable bone in a bison kill discovered the day before much of this site was destroyed in the gravel operations. Two stone piles of Harris No. 3 were excavated just ahead of the bulldozers. Artifacts and flakes found between the stones of one pile and flakes in the other indicate that the piles were constructed by a late prehistoric hunting group. Two occupations were located under one stone pile. The Richards Kill Site (C3-TM-2): A Besant Phase kill site near Killarney, Manitoba, was tested late in the fall of 1967 and reported in the Manitoba Archaeological Newsletter by Walter M. Hlady (Vol. IV, No. 2). This extremely important site was discovered by Mr. J.C. Richards in a shallow pothole on his farm and future excavation could be expected to provide significant information on the Besant Phase. Steeprock Lake (C3-UN-55): This non-ceramic Beach terrace site in the Porcupine Mountains tested in 1966 was excavated in July and September of 1967. Current information suggests primary association with quarry flint knapping and tool assemblages relate to two separate time periods. The early manifestation has late paleo and early archaic forms occurring in close association while smaller eared, basal notched, stemmed and corner notched forms are characteristic of the later period. A weak stratigraphy within each of the two relatively broad groupings is developing and charcoal from a lower level of the early group is in the process of being dated. Evans Site (C3-UN-31): Only a short period was spent at this site near Flin Flon and material obtained supported evidence found during previous field seasons that the pre-ceramic occupation probably relates to what is being identified as 'Shield Archaic'. Pipestone Creek: Society member David Braddell of Reston, Manitoba, is salvaging skeletal remains and artifactual materials from burials destroyed in gravel operations near the Pipestone Creek. Material salvaged so far indicates that at least seven and possibly nine skeletons are involved. A fragmentary mortuary vessel and red ochre are aspects of the burials. Additional Work: A number of other sites were visited during the summer of 1967 for recording purposes with surface material collected and catalogued in each case.
Early Man in Terms of Glacial Recession in East Central Saskatchewan., Winnipeg, 1968
– Thomas R. Smith
Clovis man has been identified as a mammoth hunter of 11,000 to 11,500 years ago. Glacial studies in Saskatchewan and a reported mammoth tooth from Arborfield, suggest a possible range as far as Lake Agassiz in the Pasquia Hills area. A mammoth recovered from glacial lake sediments at Kyle was assigned C-14 age of 12,000 years. Glacial recession was not continuous; Valderan and Two Creekan readvances may have enveloped archaeological sites in till or water-born sediments. Glacial features such as meltwater channels, beaches, and boulder pavements and soils identification are useful in reconstructing an hypothetical environment. Retreating glaciers acquire lobate margins permitting access for significant distances beyond an assumed ice margin. Clovis-like implements in the upper basin of Glacial Lake Melfort and eastward may be explainable in this way although present knowledge of this area's glacial history is limited. The Barrier Valley at 1725 feet A.S.L. and the Crooked River channel at 1625 feet seem to fix two major intervals in glacial retreat. Extensive beaches in the area between the Pasquia and Porcupine Hills offer prospects for horizontal stratigraphy.
The Glacial Lake Agassiz Survey in Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1968
– Morgan J. Tamplin
The University of Manitoba has completed its third year of archaeological research on the strandlines of Lake Agassiz. To date about 450 occupation sites have been located and over 10 have been excavated. Sites located on the beaches themselves have been supplemented by comparative sites on river banks and present-day lake shores. Sites are almost invariably located at a river-beach intersection but a stratified site in a beach context (indicating contemporaneity with Lake Agassiz) has not yet been found. Workshop sites have been located at the headwaters of streams in 'mountain' areas. During the season of 1967, an Historic Sites survey was conducted in conjunction with the Prehistoric Survey, with excellent results. Twenty six sites were located (or relocated) and recorded. Of these, four were major settlement-trading posts in the Province.
Social and Cultural Approaches in Contemporary Archaeology, Winnipeg, 1968
– Bruce G. Trigger
This paper will examine the development of a functional approach to the reconstruction of prehistory. Particular attention will be given to changes in the definitions of society and culture.
Current Research in Northern Athabaskan Prehistory, Winnipeg, 1968
– Roscoe Wilmeth
This is a progress report on investigations in Athabaskan prehistory. I made a brief survey last summer of Chilcotin sites around Anahim Lake, west central British Columbia, where an earlier survey had been made by D.H. Mitchell, University of Victoria. Excavations will be conducted at a number of sites in the summers of 1968 and 1969. Preparations are being made for future work in the Beaver area on the Peace River in British Columbia and Alberta. Reference in this report will be made to research on Athabaskan prehistory being carried out by archaeologists in other areas.
The Shield Archaic, Winnipeg, 1968
– J. V. Wright
Archaeological survey throughout the major portion of the Canadian Shield has revealed the existence of a pre-and/or non-ceramic archaic complex which possesses a distinctive stone chipping technology. Characteristic tools are biface and uniface blades, lanceolate and side-notched projectile points, a wide range of large scraper varieties, large core scraping planes, and a paucity or absence of stone grinding. Although relatively few of the Shield Archaic tools are qualitatively diagnostic, there are a number of artifact classes that are regarded as being quantitatively diagnostic. Biface blades and scrapers dominate the assemblage whereas projectile points and other artifact classes are relatively rare. Both the apparent time depth of the Shield Archaic and its extensive distribution in space relegate the complex to an important role in the interpretation of the prehistoric events which have taken place in the Canadian Shield.